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Black montgomery


Rosa Parks's Symbolic Bus Ride, Made "Black montgomery" by Rosa Parks's refusal to give her Black montgomery to a white man, the Montgomery bus boycott was one of the defining events of the civil rights movement. Beginning inthe month nonviolent protest by the black citizens of Montgomery aimed to desegregate the city's public bus system, Montgomery City Lines. Its success led to a November Supreme Court decision overturning segregated transportation that was legalized by the Plessy v.

Ferguson ruling, an area left untouched by the Brown v.

Board of Education of Black montgomery, Kansas decision to desegregate public schools. Jo Black montgomery Robinson Montgomery's black residents had prepared the ground for the bus boycott long in advance; many had boycotted the buses on their own, or threatened to do so. Inthe newly formed Women's Political Council WPC of Montgomery, an activist group of black professional women, began organizing the black community and lobbying white officials to modify Jim Crow restrictions in public transportation, with little success.

In MarchClaudette Colvin, a year-old high school junior, refused to give up her bus seat to a white person. She was arrested for violating the segregated seating ordinances and mistreated by police. This angered the black community and sparked "Black montgomery" brief, informal boycott of buses by many black residents.

In August, Montgomery's black community was shaken by the brutal lynching of year-old Chicago native Emmett Till in Mississippi. Two months later, year-old Mary Louise Smith, a house maid, was arrested for refusing to give up her seat. African Americans in Montgomery felt beleaguered. Parks finished her work as Black montgomery tailor's assistant at Montgomery's largest department store.

She and her husband Raymond had been civil rights activists for years. When the bus driver, whom Parks had defied years before, ordered her to give up her seat for a white man, she replied "no.

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Although Parks did not plan her calm, determined protest, Black montgomery recalled that she had a life history of rebelling against racial mistreatment.

She believed that she had been "pushed as far as [she] could stand to be pushed.

City Commission. W. A. Gayle,...

The Durrs and Nixon persuaded Parks to allow her arrest to be used as a test case for the constitutionality of bus segregation. Robinson and two students stayed Black montgomery all night at the college mimeographing 50, flyers that called for a "Black montgomery" bus boycott on Monday, December 5, the day of Parks's trial.

The next day they distributed the flyers all over the city. After Robinson persuaded Nixon to support the effort, he phoned Montgomery's black ministers to enlist their aid. Fellow Baptist minister Ralph Abernathywho became King's close friend and confidant, joined eagerly and served as the most effective boycott mobilizer after King.

Legacy Museum opens in Montgomery,...

Most walked to work or school, carpooled with friends, took taxis, or hitchhiked. Her young lawyer, Fred Black montgomeryappealed the ruling. That night, King gave a powerful speech to several thousand people assembled for the first of many MIA mass meetings held in black churches.

The participants voted overwhelmingly to continue the protest until officials met their demands for fairer treatment. At the outset white officials and opinion leaders believed that Black montgomery bus Black montgomery would collapse quickly and that blacks were not capable of a long-term protest campaign. The white community solidified in opposition, spurred by growth of the local White Citizens' Council, but a few brave white citizens, such as Virginia and Clifford Durr and city librarian Juliette Hampton Morgansupported the civil rights effort.

Legacy Museum opens in Montgomery,...

Car Pooling During the Montgomery Bus Boycott The bus boycott carried on, supported by virtually all of Montgomery's 40, black residents more than one-third of the city population. The MIA created "Black montgomery" highly efficient carpool system managed by women leaders, one of many vital roles that women performed. City officials negotiated with MIA leaders, who had initiated talks in late December The officials Black montgomery no concessions, however, and talks broke down in January.

of Alabama cities to help...

When it became evident that the boycott would continue indefinitely, and that the Black montgomery company which supported an end to segregated seating might be put out of business, the city commissioners adopted a "get tough" policy. Police harassed carpool drivers, and King was arrested on a false speeding charge. His house was bombed while his wife, Corettaand infant daughter were at home, but they were unharmed. Nixon's home was also bombed, with little damage. Later in the year, Abernathy's church and other churches and parsonages were bombed.

On January 30, MIA leaders decided that because the city government would not accept their moderate demands, they would challenge the constitutionality of bus segregation—no longer Black montgomery its reform but its abolition. For technical reasons, Parks's case could not serve this purpose, so attorney Fred Gray filed a federal lawsuit on behalf of four female plaintiffs: Meanwhile, in one of a string of blunders, city leaders indicted nearly boycott leaders on conspiracy charges under an old anti-union law.

They prosecuted King first, and his trial and conviction in March Black montgomery negative national publicity to the city as well "Black montgomery" support and funds for the cause. Gayle that Alabama's bus segregation laws, both city and state, violated the Fourteenth Amendment and were thus unconstitutional.

At the same moment, the city's belated injunction shut down the carpool system by making it illegal, but those who had driven joined those who had been walking all along. After the city government lost its final appeal in the Supreme Court, black citizens desegregated Montgomery's buses Black montgomery December 21, White extremists fired on buses and bombed churches, but the year-long bus protest ended in victory over the city's Jim Crow laws.

In this and other ways, the bus boycott prepared the ground for the historic black freedom movement that transformed American politics, culture, and values. The bus boycott forged the strategies and methods, the support networks and alliances, the language, vision, and spiritual expression that generated the ensuing mass movement for racial justice.

The Montgomery experience showed the power "Black montgomery" mass nonviolent direct action and set the standard for a democratic grassroots movement in which leadership was shared widely.

DVD, directed by Clark Johnson.