The epidemiologic characteristics of erectile dysfunction ED in mainland China remain incompletely understood.
To evaluate the overall prevalence and determine the severity of ED in mainland China. Data were pooled for the random-effects model.
Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess potential bias. All survey studies reporting on the prevalence of ED in mainland China were included. Data extraction was performed independently by two of the authors, and conflicts were resolved by another author.
Of 2, retrieved articles, 25 were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 48, participants.
ED is highly prevalent in mainland China, and its prevalence increases with age. More high-quality surveys on ED with larger samples throughout mainland China are needed to confirm these findings. As the population ages, genitourinary problems in the elderly have attracted increasing attention. Erectile dysfunction EDdefined as the persistent inability to attain or maintain a penile erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance, is better understood and the most studied sexual problem worldwide, which primarily affects men older than 40 years.
Moreover, the financial burden directly or indirectly caused by ED is very significant. Many subsequent studies have been performed during the past two decades. However, the prevalence varies greatly across different populations and regions.
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Considering the huge population and the increased proportion of elderly men, the prevalence of ED might be significant. According to the sixth national census, the population reached 1. This percentage is estimated to reach To assess the disease burden and "Wang ren fu wife sexual dysfunction" relevant policies, understanding the prevalence and epidemiologic characteristics of ED is essential. Moreover, evidence suggests that the prevalence of ED in China might continue to increase with age.
Hence, the age-specific prevalence is necessary. In addition, oral drug therapy, the most frequently used treatment, shows a far better effect on mild rather than on severe ED. To date, a national epidemiologic survey of ED has never been performed in mainland China. This first meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the overall prevalence and determine the severity of ED in mainland China. In addition, prevalence was stratified by age, severity, location, and year to identify potential risk factors for ED.
This strategy can highlight directions for future research and provide an epidemiologic basis for planning and implementing public health policies as necessary. In addition, we added the keywords male sexual dysfunction and impotence to avoid omissions because there were several synonymous or nearly synonymous terms in Chinese. In addition, relevant articles in the reference lists were identified to ensure no related studies were overlooked.
To expand the retrieval scope, the publishing period was not limited. Searching was completed on March 31, All related
Wang ren fu wife sexual dysfunction were selected by two independent investigators. The studies included in this meta-analysis met the following criteria: If several articles were based on the same surveys, the
Wang ren fu wife sexual dysfunction with the most detailed data was selected after a careful review by the investigators.
Studies were excluded if they met any of the following criteria: In this meta-analysis, we extracted the following data from the original articles: If self-reporting was one of the diagnostic standards in the original article, then we also extracted the prevalence by self-reports to compare different methods in the diagnosis of ED.
All data were extracted by two investigators independently, and disagreement was resolved by discussion or by consultation with another investigator until a consensus was reached. This assessment was conducted by two investigators independently; inconsistencies were settled by discussion or another investigator. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q-test and the I 2 statistic, and if the P value was less than. Otherwise, a fixed-effects model Mantel-Haenszel method was selected. Furthermore, to find sources of heterogeneity, we performed a meta-regression based on the following variables separately: When performing the sensitivity analysis, we removed a single study one by one at a time to detect the effect of the single study on the combined prevalence of ED in this meta-analysis.
In addition, publication bias was examined by the funnel plot and the Egger test, where an asymmetric funnel plot or a P value less than 0.
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After examining these titles and abstracts, 1, articles were removed because they were duplicate records from among the databases or irrelevant to the prevalence of ED, and potentially eligible studies were retained for further evaluation by full-text assessment. Twenty-five studies met the selection criteria and were included in this meta-analysis.
The epidemiologic characteristics of erectile...
Flowchart of the article selection process to evaluate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in mainland China. ED prevalence varied from Eighteen studies reported on the severity-specific prevalence, and 19 provided the age-specific prevalence. The articles were published from throughand the survey dates ranged from to five studies did not mention their survey dates. All studies were conducted in mainland China, covering 13 regions: Quality scores were used to assess the risk of bias in individual studies.
Forest plot for the overall estimate of the prevalence of erectile dysfunction. The diagnostic method was divided into three subgroups: Eighteen articles reported on the severity-specific prevalence.
Because of the different diagnostic methods, we included only studies using the IIEF-5 for diagnosis, and the following criteria were used for classification: Severity-specific prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe erectile dysfunction. Prevalences in studies evaluated by andrology specialists, non-andrology medical staff, and other trained staff were Prevalences of ED in surveys using randomized groups and other randomization methods were Prevalences of ED in studies with quality scores of 6, 7, 8, and 9 were We created four levels reflecting the prevalence of ED.
The prevalence of ED in the provincial regions of mainland China varied from The first level represented no available data
Wang ren fu wife sexual dysfunction the relevant regions and is represented as pink on the map.
The prevalence of ED in the second level ranged from 0. The highest prevalence of ED was observed in Gansu, and it was assigned to the fourth level, which is represented by darkest red on the map. However, no particular concentration of ED prevalence was indicated on the map. The sources of heterogeneity were explored by univariate meta-regression, with the covariates of survey year, province, age range, identity of investigators, diagnostic method, and quality scores.
However, none of these predictors showed a significant influence on heterogeneity among studies. Visual inspection indicated the funnel plot was not symmetrical and some points fell outside the funnel. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first meta-analysis of the epidemiology of ED in mainland China.
The pooled overall prevalence of ED was The prevalences reported by different diagnostic methods were However, no geographic distribution difference was found according to the currently available data. In Asia, the prevalence of ED has been estimated at The age-specific prevalences were In previous studies, the prevalence of ED was significantly influenced by age 46 ; this pattern was confirmed in this meta-analysis. The prevalence nearly doubled from no older than 30 years to 40 to 49 years Moreover, the severity of ED increased with age: This is consistent with two other independent, population-based, large-scale studies of Spanish 47 and Saudi Arabian 48 men.
The pathophysiologic explanation for the age trend is complicated, and the preventive value of this insight is limited. In contrast, some lifestyle factors that cause ED deserve more attention. Evidence from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles in Britain indicated ED was associated with smoking, use of alcohol, unsafe sex at least two partners and no condom use in the past yearand recreational drugs.
Wang ren fu wife sexual dysfunction
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A survey conducted in
Wang ren fu wife sexual dysfunction showed that an unhealthy diet and physical inactivity were risk factors for ED. In mainland China, the high prevalence of ED can be explained by at least three factors. First, vasculogenic disorders are believed to be the most important risk factor for ED. Second, the prevalence of tobacco use in adults in China is one of the highest in the world and is increasing.
Some conventional Chinese behaviors such as physical inactivity are potential reasons for the high prevalence of ED.
An interesting result was found in this meta-analysis: Similarly, the result of a population-based study in Taiwan China was In traditional Chinese culture, health-seeking behavior was observed as reflecting a loss of status and control, which can damage the identity of a man.
Moreover, the sexual culture in China, long influenced by Confucianism and Taoism, has been serious; joy has had no place in the sexual realm. In addition, traditional Chinese medicine stipulates that sex
Wang ren fu wife sexual dysfunction more harmful than beneficial to men's health.
Therefore, Chinese men maintain silence about their sexual problems because they fear a loss of control and damage to their culture role more than they fear
Wang ren fu wife sexual dysfunction unsatisfactory sexual life. Compared with the prevalence of moderate and severe ED 9. Similar results were found by Martins and Abdo 58 who reported that the prevalence of ED in 1, Brazilian men was This result indicates that the mild type constitutes the overwhelming majority of ED cases.
Traditional Chinese herbalists treat sexual imbalances such as impotence or or ren shen in Mandarin Chinese, to improve vitality and sexual wellness for both Lung Fu Chuang Yeung Dan is a traditional Chinese formula recommended to which contains cow soapwort (Vaccaria seqetalis) or wang bu liu
Wang ren fu wife sexual dysfunction peony.
Nelson JB, Glorioso JC () Gene therapy as future treatment of erectile dysfunction. Expert Opin Biol Ther – You Q, Yao Y, Zhang Y, Fu S, Du M, Li W, Guo X, Zhao Petal () Rescue of ATP7B function in hepatocyte- like cells Nanomedicine – Zhang Y, Wang J, Ren M, Li M, Chen D et al.
PDF | Introduction: The epidemiologic characteristics of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Key Words: Erectile Dysfunction; Prevalence; China; Meta-Analysis . Fu et al, 20 Randomized NA Guangxi NA IIEF-5 NA 5, 1, Wang et al, NA 18e75 Cluster randomization U Guangdong NA IIEF-5 .
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