The study of the environment and sexual orientation is research into possible environmental influences on the development of human sexual orientation. Some researchers distinguish environmental influences from hormonal influences,  while others include biological influences such
Social psychology and human sexuality pdf prenatal hormones as part of environmental influences. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is the result of a complex interplay of genetichormonaland environmental influences.
Hypotheses for the impact of the post-natal social environment on sexual orientation are weak, especially for males. Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may Social psychology and human sexuality pdf align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.
The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors They do, however, encourage gay affirmative psychotherapy. Scholar Lisa Diamondwhen reviewing research on lesbian and bisexual women's sexual identities, stated that studies find "change and fluidity in same-sex sexuality that contradict conventional models of sexual orientation as a fixed and uniformly early-developing trait".
Researchers have found childhood gender nonconformity GNC to be the largest predictor of homosexuality in adulthood. In men, CGN is a strong predictor of sexual orientation in adulthood, but this relationship is not as well understood in women. Daryl Bem suggests that some children will prefer activities that are typical of the other sex. Choice of activity consistent with societally defined gender roles will make a gender-conforming child feel different from opposite-sex children.
Gender-nonconforming children, on the other hand, will feel different from children of their own sex. In either case, Bem "Social psychology and human sexuality pdf," this feeling of difference may evoke physiological arousal when the child is near members of the sex which it considers as being "different", which will later "Social psychology and human sexuality pdf" transformed into sexual arousal.
This nonconformity may be a result of genetics, prenatal hormones, personality, parental care or other environmental factors. Bearman and Bruckner showed that males with a female twin are twice as likely to report same-sex attractions, unless there was an older brother.
They say that their findings can be explained by the hypothesis that less gendered socialization in early childhood and preadolescence shapes subsequent same-sex romantic preferences.
They suggest that parents of opposite-sex twins are more likely to give them unisex treatment, but that an older brother establishes gender-socializing mechanisms for the younger brother to follow. In addition to attraction, opportunity has to present itself.
Since opportunity is socially structured, the expectation is that social influences should be stronger for behavior than attraction. Scholar Lorene Gottschalk suggests that there may be a reporting bias that has influenced the results linking childhood gender nonconformity to homosexuality. Many of the studies on the link between CGN and sexual orientation are conducted retrospectivelymeaning that adults are asked to reflect on their behaviors as children.
Adults will often reinterpret their childhood behaviors in terms of their present conceptualizations of their gender identity and sexual orientation. Gay men and lesbian women who endorsed a biological perspective on gender and sexual orientation tended to report more instances of childhood gender nonconformity and explain these behaviors as early genetic or biological manifestations of their sexual orientation.
Lesbian women who endorse a social constructionist perspective on gender identity often interpret their childhood GNC as an awareness of patriarchal norms and rejection of gender roles.
Heterosexual men are more likely to downplay GNC, attributing their behaviors to being sensitive or artistic. Retrospective reinterpretation does not invalidate studies linking GNC and sexual orientation, but awareness of how present conceptualization of gender identity and sexual orientation can affect perceptions of childhood may be considered. Researchers have provided evidence that gay men report having had less loving and more rejecting fathers, and closer relationships Social psychology and human sexuality pdf their mothers, than non-gay men.
Some researchers think this may indicate that childhood family experiences are important determinants to homosexuality,  or that parents behave this way in response to gender-variant traits in a child. From their research "Social psychology and human sexuality pdf" men in the Taiwanese military, Shu and Lung concluded that "paternal protection and maternal care were determined to be the main vulnerability factors in the development of homosexual males".
Key factors in the development of homosexuals were "paternal attachment, introversion, and neurotic characteristics". Research also indicates that homosexual men have significantly more older male siblings than the homosexual women, who, in turn, have significantly more siblings than heterosexual men. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large numbers of siblings, and late birth order.
Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families. For men, same-sex marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death
Social psychology and human sexuality pdf adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of same-sex marriage.
Results from a twin study were consistent with moderate, primarily genetic, familial effects, and moderate to large effects of the nonshared environment social and biological on Social psychology and human sexuality pdf sexual behavior; the study concluded that, for same-sex sexual behavior, shared or familial environment plays no role for men and minor role for women.
The study, including approximately three times as many people as the previous largest study on this subject, indicates that it is significantly more statistically reliable. It links sexual orientation in men with two regions of the human genome that have been implicated before. Another region in the twist of chromosome 8, known as 8q12, was first identified in Most researchers attribute this to prenatal environmental factors, such as prenatal hormones.
In their landmark study of sexual behavior in the United States—reported in the Social Organization of Sexuality —the University of Chicago sociologist Edward Laumann and his colleagues found that homosexuality was positively correlated with urbanization of the place of residence at age The correlation was more substantial among men than women.
The authors hypothesized that "Large cities may provide a congenial environment for the development and expression of same-gender interest. In Denmark, people born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, and more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers.
Miron Baron stated, "Some cultures — for example, the Assyrian and Graeco - Roman — were more tolerant of homosexuality. The behavior was practiced openly and was highly prevalent. Sexual patterns are to some extent a product of society's expectations, but it would be difficult to envisage a change in the prevalence of the genetic trait merely in response to changing cultural norms.
In the US, there has been an increasing number of women developing an attraction for other women. Social psychology and human sexuality pdf Klein has stated that "It's clear that a change in sexual orientation is imaginable to more people than ever before, and there's more opportunity — and acceptance — to cross over the line.
The American Psychiatric Association states: Sexual abuse does not appear to be more prevalent in children who grow up to identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, than in children who identify as heterosexual".
One study in the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that "Abused adolescents, particularly those victimized by males, were up to 7 times more likely to self-identify as gay or bisexual than peers who had not been abused".
However, the study went on to state that victims may self-identify as gay or bisexual before the abuse occurs, implying that their non-heterosexual orientation and identity is not by the abuse, and reported that no longitudinal study had determined a causal relationship between sexual abuse and sexual orientation.
In a year longitudinal study published in the Archives of Sexual Behavioralthough the authors found that men with histories of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to report ever having had same-sex sexual partners, they did not find any "significant relationships between childhood physical abuse or neglect and same-sex sexual orientation in adulthood"; neither men nor women with histories of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect reported more same-sex sexual partners in the previous year or same-sex romantic cohabitation compared to Social psychology and human sexuality pdf and women without such histories.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation. A Population Study of Twins in Sweden". Archives of Sexual Behavior. Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Retrieved January 11, The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing.
No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree Social psychology and human sexuality pdf biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation. Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Retrieved January 10, Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved January 1, The Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Retrieved 13 June American Journal of Sociology. Retrieved 10 September Consistency and change over time".
Journal of Sex Research. James; Williams, Mark L. American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.