Artificial insemination AI is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterine cavity for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse. It is a fertility treatment for humans, and is common practice in animal breedingincluding dairy cattle see Frozen bovine semen and pigs.
Artificial insemination may employ assisted reproductive technologysperm donation and animal husbandry techniques. Artificial insemination techniques available include intracervical insemination and intrauterine insemination. The beneficiaries of artificial insemination are women who desire to give birth to their own child who may be single, women who are in a lesbian relationship or women who are in a heterosexual relationship but with a male partner who is infertile or who has a physical impairment which prevents full intercourse from taking place.
Intracervical insemination ICI is the easiest and most common insemination technique and can be used in the home for Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction without medical practitioner assistance. Some countries have laws which restrict and regulate who can donate sperm and who is able to receive artificial insemination, and the consequences of such insemination.
Some women who live in a jurisdiction which does not permit artificial insemination in the circumstance in which she finds herself may travel to another Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction which permits it. The first reported case of artificial insemination by donor occurred in Pancoast, a professor in Philadelphia, took sperm from his "best looking" student to inseminate an anesthetized woman. The woman was not informed about the procedure, unlike her infertile husband.
The case was reported 25 years later in "Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction" medical journal.
In the s, direct intraperitoneal insemination DIPI was occasionally used, where doctors injected sperm into the lower abdomen through a surgical hole or incision, with the intention of letting them find the oocyte at the ovary or after entering the genital tract through the ostium of the fallopian tube.
The sperm used in artificial insemination may be provided by either the Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction husband or partner partner sperm or by a known or anonymous sperm donor see sperm donation donor sperm. If the procedure is successful, the woman will conceive and carry a baby to term in the normal manner. A pregnancy resulting from artificial insemination is no different from a pregnancy achieved by sexual intercourse.
In all cases, the woman is the biological mother of any child produced by AI, and the male whose sperm is used Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction the biological father. There are multiple methods used to obtain the semen necessary for artificial insemination. Some methods require only men, while others require a combination of a male and female.
Those that require only men to obtain semen are masturbation or the aspiration of sperm by means of a puncture of the testicle and epididymus.
Methods of collecting semen that involve a combination of a male and female include interrupted intercourse, intercourse with a 'collection condom', or the post-coital aspiration of the semen from the vagina. There are a number of reasons why a woman with a male partner would use artificial insemination to achieve pregnancy. For example, a woman's immune system may be rejecting her partner's sperm as invading molecules.
In the case of heterosexual couples who are finding it difficult to conceive, before artificial insemination is turned to as the solution, doctors will require an examination of both the male and female involved in order to remove any and all physical hindrances that are preventing them from naturally achieving a pregnancy.
The couple is also given a fertility test to determine the motility, number, and viability of the male's sperm and the success of the female's ovulation. From these tests, the doctor may or may not recommend a form of artificial insemination. is critical, as the window and opportunity for fertilization is little more than twelve hours from the release of the ovum. To increase the chance of success, the woman's menstrual cycle is closely observed, often using ovulation kits, ultrasounds or blood tests, such as basal body temperature tests over, noting the color and texture of the vaginal mucus, and the softness of the nose of her cervix.
To improve the success rate of AI, drugs to create a stimulated cycle may be used, but the use of such drugs also results in an increased chance of a multiple birth. Sperm can be provided fresh or washed. Pre- and post-concentration of motile sperm is counted. Sperm from a sperm bank will be frozen and quarantined for a period, and the donor will be tested before and after production of the sample to ensure that he does not carry a transmissible disease.
For fresh shipping, a semen extender is used. If sperm is provided by a private donor, either directly or through a sperm agency, it is usually supplied fresh, not frozen, and it will not be quarantined. Donor sperm provided in this way may be given directly to the recipient woman "Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction" her partner, or it may be transported in specially insulated containers. Some donors have their own freezing apparatus to freeze and store their sperm.
Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction used is used either fresh, raw, or frozen. Where donor sperm is supplied by a sperm bank, it will always be quarantined and frozen, and will need to be thawed before use. When an ovum is released, semen is introduced into the woman's vaginauterus or cervixdepending on the method being used. Intracervical insemination ICI involves the introduction of unwashed or raw semen into the vagina at the entrance to the cervixusually by means of a needleless syringe.
ICI is painless and is the easiest and most common insemination technique. This method closely replicates the ejaculation of semen by the penis during sexual intercourse, with fresh sperm being directly deposited into the vagina, and onto the neck of the cervix.
It is the simplest type of artificial insemination, and unwashed or raw semen is normally used, but semen supplied by a donor through a sperm bank which has been prepared for IUI use may also be used. The procedure is commonly used in home, and practitioner insemination procedures, and for insemination where semen is provided by private donors.
In order to perform an ICI insemination, air must be expelled from a needle-less syringe which is then filled with semen which has been allowed to liquify. Any further enclosed air must be removed by gently pressing the plunger forward. The woman lies on her back and the syringe is then inserted into the vagina. Care is optimal when Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction the syringe, so that the tip is as close to the entrance to the cervix as possible.
A vaginal speculum may be used for this purpose.
The plunger is then slowly pushed forward and the semen in the syringe is gently emptied deep into the vagina. It is important that the syringe is emptied slowly for best "Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction." The syringe may be left in place for several minutes before removal. The woman can bring herself to orgasm so that the cervix 'dips down' into the pool of semen, again replicating closely vaginal intercourse, and this may improve the success rate.
The woman is advised to lie still for about half-an-hour to improve the success rate. One insemination during a cycle is usually sufficient.
Additional inseminations may not improve the chances of a pregnancy. Ordinary sexual lubricants should not be used in the process, but special fertility or 'sperm-friendly' lubricants can be used for increased ease and comfort.
When performed at home without the presence of a Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction, aiming the sperm in the vagina at the cervix may be more difficult to achieve and the effect is to 'flood' the vagina with semen, rather than to target it specifically at the entrance to the cervix. This procedure is therefore sometimes referred to as intravaginal insemination IVI.
The sealed end of the straw itself must be cut off and the open end of the straw is usually fixed straight on to the tip of the syringe, allowing the contents to be drawn into the syringe. Sperm from more than one straw can generally be used in the same syringe. Where fresh semen is used, this must be allowed to liquefy before inserting it into the syringe, or alternatively, the syringe may be back-loaded. A conception cap, which is a form of conception devicemay be inserted into the vagina
Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction insemination and may be left in place for several hours.
Using this method, a woman may go about her usual activities while the cervical cap holds the semen in the vagina close to the entrance to the cervix. Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction of this method claim that it increases the chances of conception. One advantage with the conception device is that fresh, non-liquefied semen may be used. The partner or donor may ejaculate straight into the cap and this can be immediately inserted into the vagina.
Other methods may be used to insert semen into the vagina notably involving different uses of a conception cap. This may, for example, be inserted filled with sperm which does not have to be liquefied. The male may therefore ejaculate straight into the cap. Alternatively, a specially designed conception cap with a tube attached may be inserted empty into the vagina after which liquefied semen is poured into the tube.
These methods are designed to ensure that donor or partner semen is inseminated as close as possible to the cervix and that it is kept in place there to increase the chances of conception.
Intrauterine insemination IUI involves injection of washed sperm into the uterus with a catheter.
If unwashed semen is used, it may elicit uterine cramping, expelling the semen and causing pain, due to content of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are also the compounds responsible for causing the myometrium to contract Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction expel "Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction" menses from the uterus, during menstruation. Resting on the table for fifteen minutes after an IUI is optimal for the woman to increase the pregnancy rate.
Unlike ICI, intrauterine insemination normally requires a medical practitioner to perform the procedure. A female under 30 years of age has optimal chances with IUI; for the man, a TMS of more than 5 million per ml is optimal. IUI is a more efficient method of artificial insemination than ICI and, because of its generally higher success rate, is usually the insemination procedure of choice for single women and lesbians using donor semen in a fertility centre and who are less likely to have fertility issues of their own.
Enabling the sperm to be inserted directly into the womb will produce a better chance of conceiving. Still, advanced maternal age causes decreased success rates; women aged 38—39 years appear to have reasonable success during the first two cycles of ovarian hyperstimulation and IUI.
A double intrauterine insemination theoretically increases pregnancy rates by decreasing the risk of missing the fertile window during ovulation. However, a randomized trial of insemination after ovarian hyperstimulation found no difference Vetrimaaran wife sexual dysfunction live birth rate between single and double intrauterine insemination.
Intrauterine tuboperitoneal insemination IUTPI involves injection of washed sperm into both the uterus and fallopian tubes.