Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research.
Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms.
Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. In general, cyberbullying involves hurting someone else using information and communication technologies.
Cyberbullying has emerged as a relatively new form of bullying within the last decade. More recently, work has been conducted on establishing the psychosocial for example, depression, anxiety and psychosomatic correlates for example, headaches, stomachaches of cyberbullying. Given that cyberbullying is a relatively new construct, it is important to note that there are still definitional and methodological inconsistencies throughout the literature.
The term cyberbullying in this review will represent an umbrella term that includes related constructs such as Internet bullying, online bullying, and information communication technologies and Internet harassment. Although the variability is significant, the research is clear that cyberbullying is prevalent during adolescence and as such, merits further study.
The purpose of the current review is to explore the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide. It is anticipated that this information can be used to increase the knowledge of practitioners, health care providers, educators, and scholars, and subsequently better inform prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harm.
The first section of this paper reviews the effects of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration on adolescent health. The next section includes a brief discussion of individual
What are the impacts of cyberbullying factors related to participation in cyberbullying. "What are the impacts of cyberbullying"
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The third section highlights mediating and moderating processes related to the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. The final section addresses prevention and intervention efforts related to minimizing cyberbullying and its subsequent effect on adolescent health. This relationship has been explored among Finnish youth, 28 Turkish youth, 26 German youth, 29 Asian and Pacific Islander youth, 17 American youth, 20 youth living in Northern Ireland, 30 Swedish youth, 31 Australian youth, 32 Israeli youth, 33 Canadian youth, 34 Czech youth, 35 Chinese youth, 36 and Taiwanese youth.
For example, results indicate that there is a significant relationship between cybervictimization and depression among adolescents, 2038 — 43 and among college students. Raskauskas and Stoltz 45 asked adolescents open-ended questions about the negative effects of cyberbullying. Perren et al 39 further investigated the relationship between depression and cybervictimization among Swiss and Australian adolescents by controlling for traditional forms of victimization.
Cyberbullying has been conceptualized as a stressor. Similarly, targets
What are the impacts of cyberbullying online harassment reported increased rates of trauma symptomology. Not surprisingly, Sourander et al 28 found that cybervictims feared for their safety.
It is posited that cyberbullying is more stressful than traditional bullying, perhaps in part related to the anonymity of cyberbullying. Compared to traditional bullying, targets of cyberbullying are less likely to know their perpetrators.
Consistent with a myriad of other studies, the
What are the impacts of cyberbullying common response to cyberbullying was anger, 6185152 followed by upset and worry.
However, reactions to being cyberbullied may depend on the form of cyberbullying. For example, Ortega et al 53 found that different forms of cyberbullying may elicit different emotional reactions — for instance, being bullied online may evoke a different emotional reaction than being bullied via a cell phone. Specifically, targets of cyberbullying reported more loneliness from their parents and peers, 54 along with increased feelings of isolation and helplessness.
Several researchers have examined the association between involvement with cyberbullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. For "What are the impacts of cyberbullying," Hinduja and Patchin 59 surveyed American middle school students and examined the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying either as a victim or perpetrator and suicidality. The results revealed that both targets and perpetrators of cyberbullying were more likely to think about suicide, as well as attempt suicide, when compared to their peers who were not involved with cyberbullying.
This relationship between cyberbullying and suicidality was stronger for targets, as compared to perpetrators of cyberbullying. Specifically, targets of cyberbullying were almost twice as likely to have attempted suicide 1.
Their study results showed that cyberbullying victimization was related to
What are the impacts of cyberbullying depressive affect and suicidal behavior.
Similarly, using an even larger high school sample, Schneider et al 55 also found a positive relationship between cybervictimization and suicidal behavior. This relationship has recently been documented among college students as well. These researchers posited that perhaps, given the public and permanent nature of the computer, along with the perceived lack of control and anonymity involved, targets of cyberbullying might experience a loss of hope, thereby magnifying the relationship between cyberbullying and suicidal ideation.
Those adolescents who were both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying experienced the greatest risk for suicidal ideation. That is, the more adolescents are involved in cyberbullying, the more likely they are to engage in suicidal behavior; this relationship was stronger for targets than for perpetrators of cyberbullying.
Recent research has expanded upon these findings and examined the potential experience s that might mediate the relationship between cyberbullying and suicidal behavior. Further, Litwiller and Brausch 60 conceptualized substance use and violent behavior as coping processes that adolescents might use
What are the impacts of cyberbullying address the physical and psychological pain associated with their experiences related to cyberbullying.
Results from this study suggest the need for health care providers, educators, and caring adults to equip adolescents with constructive coping strategies to effectively address cyberbullying. Of those studies that have been conducted, a significant relationship between cyberbullying and psychosomatic difficulties has been established.
For example, Kowalski and Limber 21 surveyed American adolescents and found that those youth who were both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying experienced more severe forms of psychological for example, anxiety, depression, and suicidal behavior and physical health concerns for example, problems sleeping, headache, poor appetite, and skin problems.
Similarly, Beckman et al 22 surveyed Swedish adolescents and found a positive relationship between involvement with cyberbullying and psychosomatic difficulties, including increased difficulty sleeping, stomachaches, headaches, and a lack of appetite, with adolescents who were both victims and perpetrators experiencing the most severe psychosomatic symptoms. Finally,
What are the impacts of cyberbullying et al 28 investigated the relationship between cyberbullying and psychiatric and psychosomatic problems among Finnish adolescents.
For example, among a sample of youth living in the US, Ybarra et al 63 found that those adolescents who were harassed online were more likely to use alcohol, drugs, and carry a weapon at school. In fact, victimized youth were eight times more likely than their peers to carry a weapon to school in the past 30 days. For example, targets of cyberbullying were 2.
Similarly, other studies have documented a significant relationship between increased cyberbullying victimization and increased substance use. Findings from literature on cyberbullying victimization and adolescent health using cross sectional design. The answer to this question is not clear. Thus far, the literature is inconsistent with respect to sex-related effects and the prevalence rates for cybervictimization. Some studies have found no sex differences, 5613242629315764 — 66 while other studies have found sex effects documenting higher prevalence rates for females.
For example, among and year-olds, Devine and Lloyd 30 found that girls were more likely to be victims of cyberbullying compared to boys. Kowalski and Limber 4 found similar sex-based effects, documenting increased prevalence rates among adolescent females in 6th, 7th, and 8th grade. The same pattern has also
What are the impacts of cyberbullying found among high school students. Only a few studies have documented higher prevalence rates for cyberbullying among males.
For example, among German adolescents, Katzer et al 29 found that males reported more victimization online than females. Among a
What are the impacts of cyberbullying of adolescents living in Cyprus, males were also at a higher risk for cybervictimization. Generally speaking, studies that have examined the impact of cyberbullying perpetration on adolescent health have shown that those adolescent perpetrators of cyberbullying were more likely to engage in problem behaviors including higher levels of proactive and reactive aggression, property damage, 23 illegal acts, 71 substance use, delinquency, 7274 and suicidal behavior. Effects of cyber bullying. Cyber...
For example, they were more likely to believe that their bullying behavior was not that harsh and that it did not bother their victims that much. Findings from literature on cyberbullying perpetration and adolescent health using cross sectional design.
Current perspectives: the impact of...
Similar to cyberbullying victimization, sex-related effects for cyberbullying perpetration have also been inconsistent. For example, some studies have found an increase in female perpetration, 78 while other studies have indicated an increase in male cyberbullying perpetration. However, we currently know relatively very little about this group of adolescents.
Recently, researchers have begun to examine how developmental changes in adolescent risk factors affect subsequent involvement in cyberbullying behavior. Further, these results showed that adolescents who experienced increased depression in grade 8 were at higher risk for both cybervictimization and cyberperpetration in grade Researchers have also begun to examine the risk factors that may be related to involvement with cyberbullying behavior.
For example, Sticca et al 67 examined longitudinal risk factors related to cyberbullying among 7th grade students. These results suggest that effective prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce cyberbullying may include early detection of delinquent behaviors offline, including substance use and aggressive behavior. The message of past studies is clear: In light of the negative impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health, it is imperative that future research examines potential mediating and moderating processes that might influence the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health.
We know that not all adolescents who experience cyberbullying report negative
What are the impacts of cyberbullying. Impact on students who are...
For example, according to the transactional theory of stress and coping, 83 the impact of cyberbullying does not solely depend on the event alone, but also on how the adolescent responds to the situation. We know that how adolescents respond to stressors for example, cyberbullying is influenced by a myriad of factors related to the individual adolescent, the context, and the stressor itself.
Bullying, no matter whether it...
More work is needed to increase our understanding of these and others factors that may help to protect adolescents from adverse health outcomes. Researchers and practitioners could then use this garnered knowledge to develop and sustain effective prevention and intervention programs to reduce cyberbullying behaviors and their associated harm.
Schenk and Fremouw 44 examined the coping strategies used by targets of cyberbullying. Their results revealed that targets of cyberbullying generally cope with cybervictimization by telling someone, avoiding friends or peers, getting revenge, and withdrawing from events, thus potentially undermining important social connections. Strategy effectiveness is an important construct to study, as we begin to identify those strategies that help to reduce the negative effects of cyberbullying.
Although, as discussed earlier several studies have examined the sex effects related to the prevalence rates of cyberbullying, we know relatively very little about how sex may moderate the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. In other words, is it possible that females may be more adversely affected by cyberbullying than males?
This is an important question to consider when examining adolescent health outcomes. Of the few studies that have been conducted, inconsistent findings have been reported. For example, some studies have found that females are more likely to be distressed by cyberbullying than males, 189394 while others have reported no sex differences. In sum, future studies are needed to elucidate the potential role of sex in moderating the relationship between involvement with cyberbullying and adolescent health outcomes.
Research suggests that different forms of support may mitigate the effects of traditional forms of victimization on psychological well-being. An exception to this is a recent study conducted by Machmutow et al, 93 who examined the moderating effects of different coping strategies
What are the impacts of cyberbullying the relationship between cybervictimization and depressive symptoms using a longitudinal design. Specifically, close feelings of social support mitigated the negative impact of cyberbullying on depressive symptomology, whereas feelings of helplessness increased depressive symptomology.
Similarly, Fanti et al 70 examined how different forms of social support ie, peer, family, and school influenced the prevalence of cyberbullying. These results suggest that family social support may be an important protective factor in guarding against the negative health correlates of cyberbullying, and thus merits further scrutiny. Given the deleterious effects of cyberbullying, effective prevention and intervention efforts must be a priority. However, studies that investigate effective prevention and intervention efforts to address cyberbullying are currently lacking.
For example, researchers who conducted a recent study with Turkish adolescents found that those adolescents who were less empathic were more at risk for engaging in cyberbullying. In terms of parental relationships, study findings suggest that health care professionals and educators should work toward helping adolescents and their
What are the impacts of cyberbullying establish warm, nurturing relationships that include close adult monitoring. While cyber bullying often takes place at home and at night, the consequences are often felt in school.
When young people come home from school and shut their front door, they are still available to become victims of cyber bullying, via text messages, internet chat rooms and an. Like all forms of bullying, cyberbullying causes psychological, emotional and physical stress.
What are the impacts of cyberbullying person's response to being bullied is unique, but research. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and. Current perspectives: the...
What are the impacts of cyberbullying
For countless children, being bullied has been a tough reality of growing up....
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What are the impacts of cyberbullying
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778 votes Impact on bullies
Cyberbullying has become an international public shape concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves fresh study. This ms reviews the prevailing literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on immature health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions as future research. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying clock in increased depressive prevail, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to write up increased substance from, aggression, and unpaid behaviors.
More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent salubrity over time. Arresting and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed.
In global, cyberbullying involves hurting someone else using information and communication technologies. Cyberbullying has emerged as a relatively new materialize of bullying within the last decade.
More recently, jog has been conducted on establishing the psychosocial for quotation, depression, anxiety and psychosomatic correlates because example, headaches, stomachaches of cyberbullying. The truth that cyberbullying is a relatively original construct, it is important to note that there are still definitional and methodological inconsistencies in every nook the literature.
The term cyberbullying in this review see fit represent an coverage term that includes related constructs such as Internet bullying, online bullying, and information communication technologies and Internet harassment. Although the variability is significant, the research is prominently that cyberbullying is prevalent during adolescence and as such, merits further over. The purpose of the current criticism is to inquire the impact of cyberbullying on pubescent health across multiple studies worldwide.
It is anticipated that this information can be used to increase the understanding of practitioners, haleness care providers, educators, and scholars, and subsequently better reveal prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated injury.
What are the Psychological Effects of Cyber Bullying?
In addition, recent Victorian research has shown that bullying perpetration in Year 10 is associated with an increased likelihood of theft, violent behaviour and binge drinking. When bullying continues and a school does not take action, the entire school climate and culture can be negatively affected. This impacts on student learning and engagement, staff retention and satisfaction and parental confidence in the school, which can lead to:.
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Please enable scripts and reload this page. Bullying has a negative impact on everyone involved; the target, the bully and the bystanders.
Impact on students who are bullied Students who are bullied are more likely to: Contributing factors to being bullied may include:
What are the impacts of cyberbullying
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CURRENT PERSPECTIVES: THE IMPACT OF CYBERBULLYING ON ADOLESCENT HEALTH THE EFFECTS OF CYBERBULLYING ARE IN MANY WAYS WORSE THAN TRADITIONAL BULLYING. LEARN MORE ABOUT THE IMPACT OF CYBERBULLYING AND...
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