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3 substances that contain bases of dating

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The name "acid" calls to mind vivid sensory images — of tartness, for instance, if the acid in question is meant for human consumption, as with the citric acid in lemons.

On the other hand, the thought of laboratory-and industrial-strength substances with scary-sounding names, such as sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid, carries with it other ideas — of acids that are capable of destroying materials, including human flesh. The name "base," by contrast, is not widely known in its chemical sense, and even when the older term of "alkali" is used, the sense-impressions produced by the word tend not to be as vivid as those generated by the thought of "acid.

As with acids, they have many household uses, in substances such as baking soda or oven cleaners. From a taste standpoint, as anyone who has ever brushed his or her teeth with baking soda knowsbases are bitter rather than sour.

How do we know when something is an acid or a base? Acid-base indicators, such as litmus paper and other materials for testing pH, offer a means of judging these qualities in various substances.

However, there are larger structural definitions of the two concepts, which evolved in three stages during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, that provide a more solid theoretical underpinning to the "3 substances that contain bases of dating" of acids and bases.

Prior 3 substances that contain bases of dating the development of atomic and molecular theory in the nineteenth century, followed by the discovery of subatomic structures in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, chemists could not do much more than make measurements and observations. Their definitions of substances were purely phenomenological — that is, the result of experimentation and the collection of data.

From these observations, they could form general rules, but they lacked any means of "seeing" into the atomic and molecular structures of the chemical world. The phenomenological distinctions between acids and basesgathered by scientists from ancient times onward, worked well enough for many centuries. The word "acid" comes from the Latin term acidus, or "sour," and from an early period, scientists understood that substances such as vinegar and lemon juice shared a common acidic quality.

Eventually, the phenomenological definition of acids became relatively sophisticated, encompassing such details as the fact that acids produce characteristic colors in certain vegetable dyes, such as those used in making litmus paper.

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